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Sunday, January 11, 2009

phylum annelida

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Mengenal Seluk Beluk Phylum Annelida




worm_lumbricus

Annelida (dalam bahasa latin, annulus = cincin) atau cacing gelang adalah kelompok cacing dengan tubuh bersegmen.
Berbeda dengan Platyhelminthes dan Nemathelminthes, Annelida merupakan hewan tripoblastik yang sudah memiliki rongga tubuh sejati (hewan selomata).Namun Annelida merupakan hewan yang struktur tubuhnya paling sederhana.

Ciri tubuh
Ciri tubuh annelida meliputi ukuran, bentuk, struktur, dan fungsi tubuh.

Ukuran dan bentuk tubuh
Annelida memiliki panjang tubuh sekitar 1 mm hingga 3 m.Contoh annelida yang panjangnya 3 m adalah cacing tanah Australia.Bentuk tubuhnya simetris bilateral dan bersegmen menyerupai cincin.

Struktur dan fungsi tubuh
Annelida memiliki segmen di bagian luar dan dalam tubuhnya.Antara satu segmen dengan segmen lainya terdapat sekat yang disebut septa.Pembuluh darah, sistem ekskresi, dan sistem saraf di antara satu segmen dengan segmen lainnya saling berhubungan menembus septa.
Rongga tubuh Annelida berisi cairan yang berperan dalam pergerakkan annelida dan sekaligus melibatkan kontraksi otot.
Ototnya terdiri dari otot melingkar (sirkuler) dan otot memanjang (longitudinal).
Sistem pencernaan annelida sudah lengkap, terdiri dari mulut, faring, esofagus (kerongkongan), usus, dan anus.Cacing ini sudah memiliki pembuluh darah sehingga memiliki sistem peredaran darah tertutup.Darahnya mengandung hemoglobin, sehingga berwarna merah.Pembuluh darah yang melingkari esofagus berfungsi memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh.
Sistem saraf annelida adalah sistem saraf tangga tali.Ganglia otak terletak di depan faring pada anterior.Ekskresi dilakukan oleh organ ekskresi yang terdiri dari nefridia, nefrostom, dan nefrotor.Nefridia ( tunggal - nefridium ) merupaka organ ekskresi yang terdiri dari saluran.Nefrostom merupakan corong bersilia dalam tubuh.Nefrotor merupaka npori permukaan tubuh tempat kotoran keluar.Terdapat sepasang organ ekskresi tiap segmen tubuhnya.

Cara hidup dan habitat
Sebagian besar annelida hidup dengan bebas dan ada sebagian yang parasit dengan menempel pada vertebrata, termasuk manusia.Habitat annelida umumnya berada di dasar laut dan perairan tawar, dan juga ada yang segaian hidup di tanah atau tempat-tempat lembap.Annelida hidup diberbagai tempat dengan membuat liang sendiri.

Reproduksi
Annelida umumnya bereproduksi secara seksual dengan pembantukan gamet.Namun ada juga yang bereproduksi secara fregmentasi, yang kemudian beregenerasi.Organ seksual annelida ada yang menjadi satu dengan individu (hermafrodit) dan ada yang terpisah pada individu lain (gonokoris).

Klasifikasi
Annelida dibagi menjadi tiga kelas, yaitu Polychaeta (cacing berambut banyak), Oligochaeta (cacing berambut sedikit), dan Hirudinea.

Polychaeta


polychaeta

Polychaeta (dalam bahasa yunani, poly = banyak, chaetae = rambut kaku) merupakan annelida berambut banyak.Tubuh Polychaeta dibedakan menjadi daerah kepala (prostomium) dengan mata, antena, dan sensor palpus.
Polychaeta memiliki sepasang struktur seperti dayung yang disebut parapodia (tunggal = parapodium) pada setiap segmen tubuhnya.Fungsi parapodia adalah sebagai alat gerak dan mengandung pembuluh darah halus sehingga dapat berfungsi juga seperti insang untuk bernapas.Setiap parapodium memiliki rambut kaku yang disebut seta yang tersusun dari kitin.
Contoh Polychaeta yang sesil adalah cacing kipas (Sabellastarte indica) yang berwarna cerah.Sedangkan yang bergerak bebas adalah Nereis virens, Marphysa sanguinea, Eunice viridis(cacing palolo), dan Lysidice oele(cacing wawo).

Oligochaeta


cacing-tanah

Oligochaeta (dalam bahasa yunani, oligo = sedikit, chaetae = rambut kaku) yang merupakan annelida berambut sedikit.Oligochaeta tidak memiliki parapodia, namun memiliki seta pada tubuhnya yang bersegmen.Contoh Oligochaeta yang paling terkenal adalah cacing tanah.Jenis cacing tanah antara lain adalah cacing tanah Amerika (Lumbricus terrestris), cacing tanah Asia (Pheretima), cacing merah (Tubifex), dan cacing tanah raksasa Australia (Digaster longmani).Cacing ini memakan oarganisme hidup yang ada di dalam tanah dengan cara menggali tanah.Kemampuannya yang dapat menggali bermanfaat dalam menggemburkan tanah.Manfaat lain dari cacing ini adalah digunakan untuk bahan kosmetik, obat, dan campuran makan berprotein tinggi bagi hewan ternak.

Hirudinea
Hirudinea merupakan kelas annelida yang jenisnya sedikit.Hewan ini tidak memiliki arapodium maupun seta pada segmen tubuhnya.Panjang Hirudinea bervariasi dari 1 - 30 cm.Tubuhnya pipih dengan ujung anterior dan posterior yang meruncing.
Pada anterior dan posterior terdapat alat pengisap yang digunakan untuk menempel dan bergerak.Sebagian besar Hirudinea adalah hewan ektoparasit pada permukaan tubuh inangnya.Inangnya adalah vertebrata dan termasuk manusia.Hirudinea parasit hidup denga mengisap darah inangnya, sedangkan Hirudinea bebas hidup dengan memangsa invertebrata kecil seperti siput.Contoh Hirudinea parasit adalah Haemadipsa (pacet) dan hirudo (lintah).
Saat merobek atau membuat lubang, lintah mengeluarkan zat anestetik (penghilang sakit), sehingga korbannya tidak akan menyadari adanya gigitan.Setelah ada lubang, lintah akan mengeluarkan zat anti pembekuan darah yaitu hirudin.Dengan zat tersebut lintah dapat mengisap darah sebanyak mungkin.

Annelid

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Semi-protected

Annelids
Fossil range: Cambrian - Recent

Glycera sp.

Glycera sp.

Scientific classification

Kingdom:

Animalia

Superphylum:

Lophotrochozoa

Phylum:

Annelida
Lamarck, 1809

Classes and subclasses

Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?)
Class Clitellata (see below)
Oligochaeta - earthworms, etc.
Branchiobdellida
Hirudinea - leeches
Class Myzostomida
Class Archiannelida (polyphyletic)

The annelids, collectively called Annelida (from Latin anellus "little ring"), are a large phylum of animals comprising the segmented worms, with about 15,000 modern species including the well-known earthworms and leeches. They are found in most wet environments, and include many terrestrial, freshwater, and especially marine species (such as the polychaetes), as well as some which are parasitic or mutualistic. They range in length from under a millimeter to over 3 meters (the seep tube worm Lamellibrachia luymesi).



Physiology

Annelids are bilaterally symmetric and triploblastic protostomes with a coelom (which makes them coelomates), closed circulatory system and true segmentation. Their segmented bodies and coelom have given them evolutionary advantages over other worms. Oligochaetes and polychaetes typically have spacious coeloms; in leeches, the coelom is filled in with tissue and reduced to a system of narrow canals; archiannelids may lack the coelom entirely. The coelom is divided into a sequence of compartments by walls called septa. In the most general forms each compartment corresponds to a triple segment of the body, which also includes a portion of the nervous and (closed) circulatory systems, allowing it to function relatively independently. The closed circulatory system consists of networks of vessels containing blood with oxygen-carrying hemoglobin. Dorsal and ventral vessels are connected by segmental pairs of vessels. The dorsal vessel and five pairs of vessels that circle the esophagus of an earthworm are muscular and pump blood through the circulatory system. Tiny blood vessels are abundant in the earthworm's skin, which function as its respiratory organ. Each segment (metamere) is marked externally by one or more rings, called annuli. Each segment also has an outer layer of circular muscle underneath a thin cuticle and epidermis, and a system of longitudinal muscles. In earthworms and in daria the longitudinal muscles are strengthened by collagenous lamellae; the leeches have a double layer of muscles between the outer circulars and inner longitudinals. In most forms they also carry a varying number of bristles, called setae, and among the polychaetes a pair of appendages, called parapodia.


Polychaeta: "A variety of marine worms" plate from Das Meer by M. J. Schleiden (1804–1881)

Anterior to the true segments lies the prostomium and peristomium, which carries the mouth, and posterior to them lies the pygidium, where the anus is located. The digestive tract is quite variable but is usually specialized. For example, in some groups (notably most earthworms) it has a typhlosole (to increase surface area) along much of its length. Different species of annelids have a wide variety of diets, including active and passive hunters, scavengers, filter feeders, direct deposit feeders which simply ingest the sediments, and blood-suckers. Annelids can also grow up to six inches.

The vascular system and the nervous system are separate from the digestive tract. The vascular system includes a dorsal vessel conveying the blood toward the front of the worm, and a ventral longitudinal vessel which conveys the blood in the opposite direction. The two systems are connected by a vascular sinus and by lateral vessels of various kinds, including in the true earthworms, capillaries on the body wall.

The nervous system has a nerve cord from which lateral nerves come in contact with each segment. Every segment has an autonomy; however, they unite to perform as a single body for functions such as locomotion. Growth in many groups occurs by replication of individual segmental units, in others the number of segments is fixed in early development.

Depending upon the species, annelids can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction by fission is a method used by some annelids and allows them to reproduce quickly. The posterior part of the body breaks off and forms a new identical worm. The position of the break is usually determined by an epidermal growth. Lumbriculus and Aulophorus, for example, are known to reproduce by the penis breaking into such fragments. This complete regeneration is noteworthy as these Annelid species are the most highly organized animals to have this capability.[1] Many other taxa (such as most earthworms) cannot reproduce this way, though they have varying abilities to regrow amputated segments.

Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction allows a species to better adapt to its environment. Some annelida species are hermaphroditic, while others have distinct sexes.

Most polychaete worms are gonochoristic, that is, they have separate males and females and external fertilization. The earliest larval stage, which is lost in some groups, is a ciliated trochophore, similar to those found in other phyla. The animal then begins to develop its segments, one after another, until it reaches its adult size.

Earthworms and other oligochaetes, as well as the leeches, are hermaphroditic and mate periodically throughout the year in favored environmental conditions. They mate by copulation. Two worms which are attracted by each other's secretions lay their bodies together with their heads pointing opposite directions. The fluid is transferred from the male pore to the other worm. Different methods of sperm transference have been observed in different genera, and may involve internal spermathecae (sperm storing chambers) or spermatophores that are attached to the outside of the other worm's body. The clitella lack the free-living ciliated trochophore larvae present in the polychaetes, the embryonic worms developing in a fluid-filled "cocoon" secreted by the clitellum.

Fossil record


Serpulid tubes on a marine shell; Duck Harbor Beach on Cape Cod Bay, Wellfleet, Massachusetts.

The annelid fossil record is sparse, but a few definite forms are known as early as the Cambrian - or perhaps even before.[2] Because the creatures have soft bodies, fossilization of a body is an especially rare event. However, a few annelids, such as the living polychaetes in the Serpulidae, secrete calcareous tubes, and such tubes are fairly common as fossils (although these are not necessarily from annelida, as other animal phyla can also secrete tubes). A fossil group has recently been assigned to the annelids, the machaeridians. These forms were polychaetes with rows of dorsal overlapping shell plates. The hard jaws of certain polychaetes, known as scolecodonts, are known from the Ordovician onward, and are common enough to be used for stratigraphic correlation in some cases. The best-preserved and oldest annelid body fossils come from the Cambrian Lagerst├Ątten such as the Burgess Shale of Canada, and the Middle Cambrian strata of the House Range in Utah. The Annelids are also diversely represented in the Pennsylvanian-age Mazon Creek fauna of Illinois. A few small groups have been treated as separate phyla: the Pogonophora and Vestimentifera, now included in the family Siboglinidae, and the Echiura.

Relationships

The arthropods and their kin have long been considered the closest relatives of the annelids, on account of their common segmented structure, giving rise to the grouping of Articulata. However, a number of differences between the two groups suggest this may be convergent evolution. The other major phylum which is of definite relation to the annelids are the molluscs, which share with them the presence of trochophore larvae. Annelids and Molluscs are thus united as the Trochozoa, a taxon more strongly supported by molecular evidence.

Sipuncula, Echiura and Siboglinidae have traditionally been placed in their own phyla, while Clitellata has been considered separated from the polychaete annelids. But recent research indicates that all of them actually belongs within the Polychaete, even if some of these groups have lost their segmentation[1].

Classes and subclasses of Annelida

  • Clitellata
    • Oligochaeta - The class Oligochaeta includes the megadriles (earthworms), which are both aquatic and terrestrial, and the microdrile families such as tubificids, which include many marine members as well. As traditionally defined, the Oligochaeta are paraphyletic.
    • Leeches (Hirudinea) - These include both bloodsucking external parasites and predators of small invertebrates.
    • Acanthobdellidea and Branchiobdella - small leech-like clitellates formerly included with the Hirudinea.
  • Aphanoneura
  • Polychaeta - This is the largest group of annelids and the majority are marine. All segments are identical each with a pair of parapodia. The parapodia are used for swimming, burrowing and the creation of a feeding current.

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